Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M5ST01, AC9M5ST03
Numeracy Progression: Interpreting and representing data: P4
At this level, students plan and conduct a statistical investigation. They pose questions and collect data using simple surveys or checklists. They select appropriate ways to display the data, interpret the represented data, and communicate their findings.
Outline the approach to follow when conducting a statistical investigation.
Provide opportunities for students to pose and investigate their own statistical questions based on their interests or concerns. Discuss approaches to collect the data in order to gather information to answer their questions. Make explicit what types of questions provide useful data and help to answer their question.
Use questioning and feedback to prompt and support students to analyse and interpret their data and describe patterns or trends. Ask students to select an appropriate method of visualising the data. Give students the chance to decide which graphical representations to use and determine when graphs are suitable or not suitable for the context and data they have collected. Ask them to justify their selection.
Provide guidance and support for students to learn how to use spreadsheets to record data. For students unfamiliar with spreadsheet software and how to construct a chart, explicitly teach how to record data into a table. Demonstrate how to create a chart by highlighting and selecting the relevant data and showing the options for different types of charts.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Use relevant contexts for students to plan and conduct a statistical investigation.
 Discuss the types of questions that can be used to collect statistical data.
 Make explicit ways to efficiently create visual displays of data, such as charts created using a spreadsheet.
 Discuss the appropriateness of graphs for particular types of data.
Students:
 pose statistical questions to collect data
 choose suitable graphs depending on the type of dataset
 represent their data and interpret trends or relationships
 communicate their findings.
Some students may:
 have difficulty asking questions that have a statistical application. A way to overcome this is to help students refine their question. This can be achieved by demonstrating which questions will allow them to collect data. For example, students can use a table to construct 4 different types of questions involving numerical and categorical variables. This can then be followed with a plan stating:
 how they will collect data
 who they will collect data from
 how much data they will need and why
 when they will need the data by.
 have difficulty accurately representing data using a relevant data display. They may use a scale that is inappropriate or inaccurate and does not suitably fit the range of data points. To address this, as a class or in targeted teaching groups, show graphical representations and discuss issues and ask students to identify the issue and how it can be corrected. In terms of the scale being used, ensure that students relate this back to the context, that the choice of scale makes it easy to interpret the graph, and that it is not misleading. Provide guidance to help students make judgements about graphs. Discuss features of a useful and accurate data display and what they should include, for example, the title and subtitles should be clear, data must be understandable, scales should use even and consistent intervals, and in column graphs, the columns should have equal spaces in between and each should be the same width.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning to collect data by observation, and then construct a display of the collected data.
Why are we learning about this?
 We need to be able to construct a variety of displays that are appropriate for the data we have collected.
What to do
Predict which letter of the alphabet you think is most frequently used in written text. You will then justify your prediction and suggest how you could test this prediction. Possible questions:
 Would some letters occur more than others? Why?
 Which letter do you write most often?
 Which letters would be least likely to occur? Why?
One approach is to choose a paragraph, a number of paragraphs, or a page from a text.
Think about how to collect data on the frequency of the letters in that paragraph; this will help you work out which letters are used most often. You might use a tally system and mark a line for each time a letter is used. Create a table with each letter of the alphabet and a column to record tally marks and a total.
Think about how best to represent the data to display the information.
Success criteria
I can:
 collect and record data
 construct a display of data that helps others to interpret the dataset
 communicate my findings.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
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Questioning
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.
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Feedback
It has been shown that good feedback can make a significant difference to a student’s future performance.
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Mathematics investigation
By giving students meaningful problems to solve they are engaged and can apply their learning, thereby deepening their understanding.
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Differentiated teaching
Differentiation involves teachers creating lessons that are accessible and challenging for all students.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Where’s the mankarr? Video observation data: Part 1
In this first of two lessons, students investigate data from animal observations recorded by a video camera.
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Where’s the mankarr? Recording and visualising data: Part 2
In this second of two lessons, students record and visualise data about the bilby (mankarr).
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Ball bounce
This activity requires students to think about methods that they could use to gather data about bounce and provides an example of how such data is used in real life.
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reSolve: Authentic problems: Reaction time
A series of inquirybased lessons about collecting data and using decimal numbers in realworld measurements.
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reSolve: Data: Making decisions
Use this activity to enable students to collect and analyse data to answer their own inquiry questions.
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Planning a statistical investigation
In this unit, students will identify how to plan and carry out a statistical investigation about a topic of interest.
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Data investigation and interpretation (Year 5)
This resource provides a detailed overview of how to cover the content related to data investigation and interpretation for Year 5 students.
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Questionnaire queries
This is a level 3 and 4 statistics activity from the Figure It Out series. It is focused on deciding which graph best shows the data clearly, making conclusions based on the data, constructing a bar graph, and interpreting or evaluating statements made about the data. A PDF of the student activity is included.
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Reading trends
This is a level 3 and 4 statistics activity from the Figure It Out series. It is focused on deciding which graph best shows the data clearly, making conclusions based on the data, constructing a bar graph, and interpreting or evaluating statements made about the data. A PDF of the student activity is included.
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Making evaluations
In this unit students evaluate statements made about the findings of statistical investigations. In evaluating the statement students look at how the results of the investigation support the findings.
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Snack attack
This is a level 3 statistics activity from the Figure It Out series. It is focused on interpreting information from a graph and creating a graph. A PDF of the student activity is included.
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Mathematics – 3–6 – Multiage – Year A – Unit 5
This unit introduces the big idea that questions can be asked and answered by interpreting data.
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The numbers don't lie
In this unit students learn and apply ideas about ‘sample’ to population statistics.
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