Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M4ST01, AC9M4ST03
Numeracy Progression: Interpreting and representing data: P4
At this level, students conduct statistical investigations, collecting data through survey responses and other methods. They record and display data using digital tools, interpret the data and communicate the results of their findings.
Outline the key stages of a statistical investigation. Elaborate on the key elements and purpose of each stage.
Use a relevant example to model the steps of a statistical investigation using a familiar context and simple dataset. Discuss the types of questions that are suitable for a statistical investigation that will provide useful data. Discuss ways to record data, such as in a table, and the use of relevant headings and labels. Model and explain the use of a relevant data display suitable for the data type. For example, this question would provide discrete data: What is the most common type of pet owned by students in our class? A column graph would be one suitable way to represent the dataset. On the other hand, a question such as ‘what time of the day is usually the warmest’ would involve collecting continuous data, for example, measuring the temperature during the day, perhaps over a week, to look for any relationships or trends. In this case, a line graph would be suitable.
Prompt students to analyse the trends in data or draw conclusions from the data display (visualisation).
Digital tools can be introduced to efficiently record data in tables, and use that data to create charts and graphs. Model how to use a simple twocolumn table to record data and create a graph using a spreadsheet.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Model the steps of a statistical investigation using a familiar context.
 Introduce ways to use digital tools to efficiently record data and create charts.
Students can:
 collect data to construct suitable data displays
 interpret data displays
 choose graphical displays based on a type of dataset
 justify their reasoning for choosing a type of graph to represent a dataset.
Some students may:
 have difficulty asking questions that have a statistical application. A way to overcome this is to help students refine their question. This can be achieved by demonstrating which questions will allow them to collect data. For example, students can use a table to construct 4 different types of questions involving numerical and categorical variables. This can then be followed with a plan stating:
 how they will collect data
 who they will collect data from
 how much data they will need, and why
 how they will record the data.
 have difficulty accurately representing data using a relevant data display. They may use a scale that is inappropriate or inaccurate and does not suitably fit the range of data points. To address this, as a class or in targeted teaching groups, show graphical representations and discuss issues and ask students to identify the issue and how it can be corrected. In terms of the scale being used, ensure that students relate this back to the context, that the choice of scale makes it easy to interpret the graph, and that it is not misleading. Provide guidance to help students make judgements about graphs. Discuss features of a useful and accurate data display and what they should include, for example, the title and labelling should be clear, data must be understandable, scales should use even and consistent intervals, and in column graphs, the columns should have equal spaces in between and each should be the same width.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning to collect data to answer a statistical question.
Why are we learning about this?
 We can use data to help us better understand what we do and achieve.
What to do
 Think of a hobby or interest you have that you would like to know more about regarding your performance or achievements across a day. Some examples to get you thinking might include:
 shooting goals using a netball or basketball
 hitting a target
 reading pages/chapters/books per day
 hours spent on a screen versus hours nonscreen time.
 Think of a question related to your hobby or interest, for example:
 How many goals can I get in 10 shots. Does this improve the more shots I take?
 What distance can I stand from a target and still be accurate?
 How many words do I read in day or a week?
 Do I have a good balance between screen time and nonscreen time?
 Look at your question. What data do you need to collect? How will you record that data?
 Perform the task related to your question and record the data in a table.
 Choose a way to represent the data that shows any patterns or trends in your results and helps you answer your question.
Success criteria
I can:
 pose a question to answer a statistical question
 record data in a table
 create a graphical display of the data
 describe findings of my investigation.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
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Questioning
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.
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Feedback
It has been shown that good feedback can make a significant difference to a student’s future performance.
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Mathematics investigation
By giving students meaningful problems to solve they are engaged and can apply their learning, thereby deepening their understanding.
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Differentiated teaching
Differentiation involves teachers creating lessons that are accessible and challenging for all students.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Where’s the mankarr? Video observation data: Part 1
In this first of two lessons, students investigate data from animal observations recorded by a video camera.
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Where’s the mankarr? Recording and visualising data: Part 2
In this second of two lessons, students record and visualise data about the bilby (mankarr).
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Scrabble stats
Students acquire data as they analyse a paragraph of text from a recent newspaper, magazine or book.
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Paper planes
Students gather data to respond to the conjecture that symmetry is important to help things fly.
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Leisure survey
This interactive tool has students making choices about questions to ask, then guides the sorting of data in preparation for a news article.
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Rubbish recording and reduction: Part 1
In this lesson sequence, students survey and collect data concerning what is brought to school each day and subsequently becomes rubbish.
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Rubbish recording and reduction: Part 2
In this lesson sequence, students use a spreadsheet to present data in a variety of ways.
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reSolve: Sport stats
An inquirybased lesson about collecting and representing data, using the context of scores from a sports game.
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Mathematics – 3–6 – Multiage – Year A – Unit 5
This unit introduces the big idea that questions can be asked and answered by interpreting data.
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