Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M3ST01, AC9M3ST03
Numeracy Progression: Interpreting and representing data: P4
At this level, students conduct guided statistical investigations, collecting data through survey responses and other methods. They record and display data using digital tools, interpret the data and communicate their results.
Outline the key stages of a statistical investigation. Elaborate on the key elements and purpose of each stage.
Provide students with examples of datasets that include:
 categorical data (data organised into categories such as age, gender, ethnicity, favourite pet, eye colour)
 discrete data (numerical information that has a countable number, such as cars observed on highway, passengers on a train, population of a country).
Guide students to conduct a statistical investigation using a familiar context and collecting a simple dataset. Discuss the types of questions that are suitable for a statistical investigation that will provide useful data. Discuss ways to record data, such as in a table, and the use of relevant headings and labels.
As a class, work through the process of conducting a statistical investigation. Model and explain the use of a relevant data display suitable for the data type. For example, this question would provide discrete data: What is the most common way students in our class travel to school? A pictograph, dot plot or column graph could be used to represent the dataset. Prompt students to interpret the graph and come up with true/false statements to share as a class.
Digital tools can be introduced to efficiently record data in tables, and then use that data to create charts and graphs. Model how to use a simple twocolumn table to record data and create a graph using a spreadsheet.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Model the steps of a statistical investigation using a familiar context.
 Introduce ways to use digital tools to efficiently record data and create charts.
Students:
 use collected data to construct suitable data displays
 interpret datasets
 create a graph using data recorded in a table.
Some students may:
 have difficulty asking questions that have a statistical application. A way to overcome this is to help students refine their question. This can be achieved by demonstrating which questions will allow them to collect data. For example, students can use a table to construct four different types of questions involving numerical and categorical variables. This can then be followed with a plan stating:
 how they will collect data
 who they will collect data from.
 How much data they will need, and why.
 How they will record the data.
 have difficulty accurately representing data using a relevant data display. They may use a scale that is inappropriate or inaccurate and does not suitably fit the range of data points. To address this, as a class or in targeted teaching groups, show graphical representations and discuss issues and ask students to identify the issue and how it can be corrected. In terms of the scale being used, ensure that students relate this back to the context, that the choice of scale makes it easy to interpret the graph, and is not misleading. Help students make judgements about graphs. Discuss the features that a useful and accurate data display should include. For example, the title and labelling should be clear, data must be understandable, scales should use even and consistent intervals, and in column graphs, the columns should have equal spaces in between and each should be the same width.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning to use a survey to collect data to answer a statistical question.
Why are we learning about this?
 We can use data to help us answer questions of interest.
 Organising data into categories can help us see patterns or trends in data.
What to do
1. We want to collect information from people across a large age group. The question of interest is: Is there a relationship between a person’s age and their preferred music type?
2. Our class will gather the data and use it to create a class table.
3. Use the following table to record the data. Survey family and family friends. Record their age range and music preferences.
Age range  Preferred music choice 1 
0–10  
11–20  
21–30  
31–40  
41–50  
50–60  
60+ 
4. To make sure the data is usable, ask the person you are surveying to choose one music preference from the following list.
Preferred music choices 
hip hop, dance music 
hard rock, heavy metal, punk rock 
alternative rock, indie rock 
pop music, easy listening 
country music, folk music 
soul music 
electronic music 
classical music 
blues 
rap music 
5. Why might it be important to provide a list of options?
6. Think of a question you would like to know the answer to.
a. Write your question.
b. Think of options that you could provide to help collect useful data.
c. Explain why you chose those options.
Success criteria
I can:
 collect data using a survey
 record data in a table
 describe ways to ensure useful data is collected from surveying
 create a graphical display of the data (at school)
 describe findings of my investigation.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
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Questioning
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.
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Feedback
It has been shown that good feedback can make a significant difference to a student’s future performance.
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Mathematics investigation
By giving students meaningful problems to solve they are engaged and can apply their learning, thereby deepening their understanding.
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Differentiated teaching
Differentiation involves teachers creating lessons that are accessible and challenging for all students.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Is Rubbish a Problem?
In this lesson, students gather, sort and display category, wholenumber, and simple timeseries data and communicate their findings through graphs.
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Rubbish recording and reduction: Part 1
In this lesson sequence, students survey and collect data concerning what is brought to school each day and subsequently becomes rubbish.
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reSolve: Statistics: Licorice Lines
An inquirybased lesson about collecting and representing data, using the context of variation in machinemade and handmade products.
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Scrabble stats
Students acquire data as they analyse a paragraph of text from a recent newspaper, magazine or book.
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Paper planes
Students gather data to respond to the conjecture that symmetry is important to help things fly.
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Assessment
By the end of Year 3, students are conducting guided statistical investigations involving categorical and discrete numerical data, and interpreting their results in terms of the context.

Assessment: Statistics: Sports data
Use this task to assess how a student uses unorganised data presented in a table to represent the data in graphical form. Teacher assessment guidance is included.
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Day Out
In this assessment task, students interpret data from a survey question.
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Clean our school
Use this task as a guide to assess students’ proficiency in conducting guided statistical investigations involving categorical and discrete numerical data.
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