Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M6ST03
Numeracy Progression: Interpreting and representing data: P5
At this level, students plan and conduct statistical investigations to collect data to answer a question for an identified problem. They analyse and interpret the data and communicate findings.
Discuss relevant questions or identify problems that require data to enable students to form generalisations or make conclusions. Provide opportunity for students to acquire data through online databases, such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics, online surveys using online forms, a class survey conducted by a poll or completing a handwritten form, or through an investigation where they make measurements and record data. Help students plan their investigation and ensure the question(s) they pose will help them gather the correct data. For example, if a student poses the question, ‘When will Australia’s population reach 30 million people?’, discuss where they might get the data, how they might collect the data, what types of data they might need, and what they might then need to do with the collected data.
Use questioning to prompt students to think about efficient ways to record and organise data in tables. Demonstrate ways to record discrete numerical data in a table discussing relevant headings and how to accurately record survey data. Discuss ways to represent the data using a relevant data display. Ask students to use reasoning when choosing appropriate displays to represent their data. Why might a pie chart be more useful in some situations and a line graph in others? Discuss continuous data, such as temperature, and the use of a line graph to represent the data.
Provide guidance and support for students to learn how to use spreadsheets to record data. For students unfamiliar with spreadsheet software and how to construct a chart, explicitly teach how to record data into a table. Demonstrate how to create a chart by highlighting and selecting the relevant data and showing the options for different types of charts.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Provide guidance to support students to plan and conduct a statistical investigation.
 Discuss the appropriateness of graphs for particular types of data.
 Make explicit ways to efficiently create visual displays of data such as charts created using a spreadsheet.
Students:
 pose relevant statistical questions and collect data
 use a frequency table to sort and categorise data
 represent data using a suitable data display
 interpret and analyse data displays
 communicate findings of a statistical investigation.
Some students may:
 have difficulty asking questions that have a statistical application. A way to overcome this is to help students refine their question. This can be achieved by demonstrating which questions will allow them to collect relevant data. For example, students can use a table to construct 4 different types of questions involving numerical and categorical variables. This can then be followed with a plan stating:
 how they will collect data
 who they will collect data from
 how much data they will need, and why
 when they will need the data by.
 have difficulty accurately representing data using a relevant data display. They may use a scale that is inappropriate or inaccurate and does not suitably fit the range of data points. To address this, as a class or in targeted teaching groups, show graphical representations and discuss issues and ask students to identify the issue and how it can be corrected. In terms of the scale being used, ensure that students relate this back to the context, that the choice of scale makes it easy to interpret the graph, and that it is not misleading. Provide guidance to help students make judgements about graphs. Discuss the features of a useful and accurate data display and what they should include, for example, the title and subtitles should be clear, data must be understandable, scales should use even and consistent intervals, and, in column graphs, the columns should have equal spaces in between and each should be the same width.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning to answer questions using data.
Why are we learning about this?
 Statistical literacy is an important skill to develop.
What to do
 View the column graph.
 Your task is to think about what this column graph might represent.
 Once you decide on what data is being represented complete the following:
 Construct the frequency table used to make this graph.
 Write down the question used to generate this survey.
 Include a scale and title for your graph.
Success criteria
I can:
 record data in a table
 select a relevant scale and add relevant information to a graph so it is clear.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
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Questioning
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.
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Feedback
It has been shown that good feedback can make a significant difference to a student’s future performance.
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Differentiated teaching
Differentiation involves teachers creating lessons that are accessible and challenging for all students.
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Multiple exposures
Providing students with multiple opportunities within different contexts to practise skills and apply concepts allows them to consolidate and deepen their understanding.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Bringing life to data
This series of four lessons uses meaningful contexts to collect, analyse and interpret realworld data through conducting a statistical investigation.
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Population clock
This projection provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics is based on the estimated resident population.
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Is it going to rain today?
In this lesson sequence, students acquire, sort and interpret rainfall data to answer questions related to a statistical investigation.
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reSolve: Reconciliation data
This lesson prompts students to examine data from the Reconciliation Barometer report, collect their own local data and compare it with the national findings.
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reSolve: Scrabble stats
In this lesson sequence, students collect data about letter frequency in a variety of text sources.
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Automated soil moisture sensor
This lesson integrates science understandings and computational thinking to solve a problem about sustainable watering practices by collecting data using a sensor.
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Reaction time test
Students watch the video to learn how to test their reaction time and conduct a statistical investigation.
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Kicking goals
Students develop their problem solving skills by designing an investigation into kicking a goal from a given angle, distance or choice of foot. Refer to page 28.
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Assessment
By the end of Year 6, students are comparing distributions of discrete and continuous numerical and ordinal categorical data sets as part of their statistical investigations, using digital tools.

Assessment: statistics – sports data
Use this task to assess how a student uses unorganised data presented in a table to represent the data in graphical form. Teacher assessment guidance is included.
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Soft drinks
In this assessment task, students compare two sets of data with different sample sizes and consider how a testing procedure could be improved.
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