Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M4M02
Numeracy Progression: Understanding units of measurement: P6
At this level, students estimate and measure perimeter and area using informal and formal units.
Provide a range of contexts where students calculate the perimeter of the boundary of a shape or enclosed space. Discuss ways to find the perimeter of irregular shapes and those that have curved surfaces. Share the different ways students have worked out the perimeter and discuss efficient strategies used.
Ensure students understand the concept of area as the space inside the boundary (perimeter) of a 2D shape.
Provide contexts where students measure the area of a shape using one square unit repeatedly. For example, work out what sized area is needed to seat the class using a carpet tile, or comparing the size of two shapes using a paper square or square counter.
Provide opportunities to compare areas of regular and irregular shapes (e.g. using grid paper) and help students see the connection between number and measurement. For instance, connect area and multiplication by calculating total area using rows and/or columns as composite units (e.g. counting 5 rows of 4, or 4 columns of 5).
Move from informal measurement of squares to introduce square centimetres and square metres. Have students estimate first and then calculate the area.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Calculate the perimeter and area of different straightsided shapes.
 Investigate ways to measure the perimeter and area of irregular shapes.
 Use formal units to measure area including square centimetres and square metres.
Students:
 describe the concept of area
 compare and calculate the area of a range of shapes using informal and formal measurements
 choose and use the correct metric units to measure different areas.
Some students may:
 confuse area and perimeter; make explicit that perimeter is the boundary of a shape and is a measurement of length and that area is the boundary space within the boundary and measured in squares or square units such as square metres.
 not yet realise the importance of measuring area using uniform units (where all units are the same size). Show two squares of different sizes measured with different sized units that result in having an equal area. Ask students to use their geometrical reasoning to explain why the area is not equal.
 believe that when measuring an area it doesn't matter if they don't completely cover an area region, or leave gaps when measuring repeatedly using a unit square.
 use an incorrect unit to measure area, for example, centimetres and not square centimetres.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning how to measure area using formal units.
Why are we learning about this?
 Area helps you to quantify physical space. In real life, area measurements can help with working out quantities, for example, how many pavers are needed to cover the ground in an outdoor part of your backyard.
What to do
For this activity, you will need 1 cm grid (graph) paper or you can use the grid provided.
 Your task is to come up with a design for an area that needs paving with square paving blocks. The area needs to be equal to 36 square units.
 Use the grid paper to draw shapes that have an area of 36 square units. You need to make sure each square shares at least one side with another.
 Here is an example, of different shapes made with 24 squares where each square shares at least one side with another. Each shape has an area of 24 square units.
Success criteria
I can:
 describe the area of a rectangular shape in square units
 create shapes that have an area of a given amount.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Mathematics investigation
By giving students meaningful problems to solve they are engaged and can apply their learning, thereby deepening their understanding.
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Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA)
The CRA model is a threephased approach where students move from concrete or virtual manipulatives, to making visual representations and on to using symbolic notation.
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Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Torn shapes
These teacher notes outline how students investigate the area of shapes torn from grid paper.
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reSolve: Authentic problems – Expanded square
This sequence of four lessons explores concepts around informal area and symmetry.
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Sizing them up
Teachers notes with a worksheet that provides guidance on how students can investigate the area of irregular shapes using informal measurement.
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Finding the area of compound shapes
An interactive where students explore and find the area of compound shapes based on rectangles on a grid.
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Counting Squares
In this activity (p 23), students apply their knowledge of length and area to describe collections of shapes ordered from smallest to largest, according to a given attribute.
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Different sizes: Area
A challenging task that involves ordering rectangles in various patterns according to size, using observations about the sides and area.
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Area and perimeter: Video and teaching guide
Use this video to explore concepts of area and perimeter, and connect these ideas to realworld situations.
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Perimeter
Use these teacher slides to support students’ learning about perimeter.
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Assessment
By the end of Year 4, students are measuring and approximating perimeters and areas.

Mathematics: Work sample portfolio summary – Year 4
Refer to work sample, Measurement: Quadrilaterals and the related task for guidance in assessing students’ understanding of measuring area.
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Ice cream puddles
Use this diagnostic task to assess understanding of area and comparing the area of two shapes using a relevant approach.
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Tiling problem
Use this diagnostic task to assess if students use an array structure when working out how many tiles fit in a rectangle.
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Leaf Task
Use this diagnostic task to assess understanding of area and measuring the area of an irregular shape.
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