Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M1N01, AC9M1N03
Numeracy Progression: Number and place value: P4, Counting processes: P4
At this level, students work towards being able to recognise, represent and order numbers up to 120. They use partitioning and various counting processes to make sense of and represent numbers in different ways.
Students learn to use numerals, number tracks, number lines and charts to explore patterns and notice how different counting sequences change the digits in the number. Reading, writing, naming and ordering numbers from zero to at least 120 is a focus, as is numbers that look and sound similar and can be confused, such as 14, 40 and 41. Provide regular opportunities for oral counting practice.
Students apply knowledge of number names, numerals and number sequences to the context of counting activities. Make explicit the usefulness of skip-counting strategies when counting collections, particularly using groups of 10. Provide regular opportunities for students to see how different number patterns change the starting number, for instance, how adding or subtracting 10 only changes the tens digit (e.g. 32 + 10 = 42).
Include a focus on how numbers are used and represented across different cultures.
Teaching and learning summary:
- Explore number sequences through play-based experiences, stories, counting routines and games.
- Use partitioning and reasoning when counting and comparing collections.
- Connect counting processes to everyday contexts, including money.
- count to and from 120 by ones from any starting point
- count forwards and backward to 120 by tens
- order numbers by placing number cards at precise points along a number line
- count large collections using group of fives and tens and by skip-counting and recording details of the count.
Some students may:
- have difficulties with the number naming sequence from 12, particularly with the start of the teen sequence. They may say, ‘twelve, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety’ when counting aloud by ones from 12. To help address this, provide repeated opportunities to practise reading and naming numbers, emphasising teen numbers.
- have difficulty bridging across decades when counting forwards, for example, they may follow twenty-nine with twenty-ten. To address this, use a daily counting routine such as ‘100 days of school’ and provide repeated opportunities to count using hundreds charts as a counting tool.
- experience difficulty bridging across barriers when counting backwards. For example, they may have difficulty crossing tens barriers when counting backwards from 54, saying, 54, 53, 52, 51, 50, unsure. Or they may skip all other numbers in a decade, for example, following 30 with 20. To address this, provide repeated opportunities to engage with hundreds chart and assist students to visualise the patterns in it.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
- We are developing confidence when counting and skip-counting up to 120.
Why are we learning about this?
- Counting and skip-counting are skills regularly used in everyday life.
What to do
- Count how many steps it takes to walk from one part of the house to another.
- Count when grocery shopping together. For example, skip-count by twos the number of apples you put into the bag.
- Read picture storybooks and count by ones or twos to work out ‘how many’ of something is on a page.
- Do a stocktake of collections at home. For example, skip-count objects groups of twos, fives or tens.
- Listen to songs about skip-counting by twos, fives and tens. There are many appropriate songs for children on YouTube.
- count forwards to starting at any number up to 30 initially, then up to 100, then 120
- count backwards from any number up to 30 initially, then up to 100, then 120
- count forwards and backwards to 100 by tens, then 120
- use skip-counting to count objects in groups of twos, fives and tens.
Please note: This site contains links to websites not controlled by the Australian Government or ESA. More information here.
A collection of evidence-based teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.
For group work to be effective students need to be taught explicitly how to work together in different settings, such as pairs or larger groups, and they need to practise these skills.Go to resource
Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA model)
The CRA model is a three-phased approach where students move from concrete or virtual manipulatives, to making visual representations and on to using symbolic notation.Go to resource
Culturally responsive pedagogy
Mathematics is not an exclusive western construct. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge and demonstrate the mathematics to be found in all cultures.Go to resource
Providing students with multiple opportunities within different contexts to practise skills and apply concepts allows them to consolidate and deepen their understanding.Go to resource
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.Go to resource
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.
100 days of school (daily routine)
Use this daily counting routine to practise counting to 100 in different ways using a visual model.Go to resource
Explore countable objects through play
Observe students’ use of number as they explore materials with countable aspects.Go to resource
Numbers to 50
See pages 35 to 44 for lessons on comparing and ordering numbers to 50 and counting collections using skip-counting.Go to resource
Explore multiples of 2 and 5 through clapping and invite students’ mathematical predictions.Go to resource
The counting game 2
Use this strategy game as a novel context to connect concrete materials with counting backwards by tens.Go to resource
reSolve: Authentic Problems: Grandma's Soup
Count and model collections up to 100, incorporating various skip-counting and grouping strategies.Go to resource
Chapter 2: Number lines and time
Use ideas on pages 21 to 32 to explore number lines and compare numbers. Note, time activities are not relevant to this year level.Go to resource
Counting activities and ordering numbers
Use these activities to connect number names with one-to-one correspondence, and connect number names with numerals to 12, then to 20.Go to resource
100 Square Jigsaw
Use this task to help reinforce students’ familiarity with a hundred square and understanding of the sequences within it.Go to resource
reSolve: Skip counting: How many birds?
Explore various skip-counting strategies to count a large number of birds in a picture.Go to resource
Big steps in growing
Identify numbers in the skip-counting by tens pattern and use skip-counting by tens to count a collection.Go to resource
For each game
This game provides a novel context to skip-count by twos and compare numbers.Go to resource
Skip it to multiply it
Use this unit to explore skip-counting by twos and fives to solve story problems.Go to resource
By the end of Year 1, students can connect number names, numerals and quantities and order numbers to at least 120. They can partition collections into equal groups and skip-count in twos, fives or tens to count collections to at least 120.
Use this diagnostic interview to gauge students’ number knowledge.Go to resource
Up to and over 100
Use this task to assess key understandings in the topic of counting.Go to resource
Use this task to assess key understandings in the topic of counting.Go to resource
Mathematics Year 1: ACARA
Refer to Year 1 work sample 1, Number: Skip-counting. Students are given a number line and demonstrate skip-counting.Go to resource