Year level: 1

Strand: Number / Statistics

Lesson length: 60 mins

In this second of two lessons, students create a visual representation of the data collected and recorded while playing a First Nations Australian children’s instructive game of throwing skill called Kolap.

In the first lesson, students collected and recorded the data used in this lesson.

This lesson was developed in collaboration with Caty Morris Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mathematics Alliance (ATSIMA).

Visualising data for a game of Kolap: Part 2 Image

Achievement standard

By the end of Year 1, students solve problems involving addition and subtraction of numbers to 20 and use mathematical modelling to solve practical problems involving addition, subtraction, equal sharing and grouping, using calculation strategies. They collect and record categorical data, create one-to-one displays, and compare and discuss the data using frequencies.

Content descriptions

Students quantify sets of objects, to at least 120, by partitioning collections into equal groups using number knowledge and skip counting. AC9M1N03

Students add and subtract numbers within 20, using physical and virtual materials, part-part-whole knowledge to 10 and a variety of calculation strategies. AC9M1N04

Students represent collected data for a categorical variable using one-to-one displays and digital tools where appropriate; compare the data using frequencies and discuss the findings. AC9M1ST02

Note an elaboration for this content description relates directly to this lesson: exploring First Nations Australian children’s instructive games; for example, Kolap from Mer Island in the Torres Strait region, recording the outcomes, representing and discussing the results.

General capabilities


  • Number sense and algebra Level 3
  • Additive strategies Level 6
  • Interpreting and representing data Level 2

Cross-curriculum priority

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Histories and Cultures


  • First Nations Australian societies are diverse and have distinct cultural expressions such as language, customs and beliefs. As First Nations Peoples of Australia, they have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their cultural expressions, while also maintaining the right to control, protect and develop culture as Indigenous Cultural and Intellectual Property. A_TSIC1


  • Australia has 2 distinct First Nations Peoples; each encompasses a diversity of nations across Australia. Aboriginal Peoples are the first peoples of Australia and have occupied the Australian continent for more than 60,000 years. Torres Strait Islander Peoples are the First Nations Peoples of the Torres Strait and have occupied the region for over 4,000 years. A_TSIP1
  • Does the picture graph include relevant labels for each category and frequency which is accurate?
  • Can the student draw relevant conclusions from theirs and others picture graphs?

Some students may:

  • be unfamiliar with tallying and inaccurately record a tally not understanding that the fifth tally mark crosses the preceding four tally marks to make a group of 5
  • not be familiar with the use of a picture graph to visualise data
  • not take into consideration the key that is associated with the picture graph
  • incorrectly count the frequency of a category
  • have difficulty coming up a with a relevant conclusion from their interpretation of the picture graph.

Prior to this lesson, it is assumed that students have knowledge of:

  • use of tally marks
  • one-to-one correspondence when using counting processes
  • interpreting data in a table.


Terminology and language

A picture graph is data represented as pictures to show how many are in each category. Usually, categories are displayed along an axis. Often the category and frequency are displayed along the axis in line with the pictures for that category.

Frequency in graphing refers to how often something happens or how many times it occurs.

What you need:

  • Lesson plan (Word)

  • Copies of student data tables completed in lesson one: Recording data in a game of Kolap