Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9MFN01, AC9MFN03
Numeracy Progression: Number and place value: P2, Counting processes: P4
At this level, students learn to recognise the order in a sequence of numbers to at least 20. They work towards being able to connect quantities to number names and numerals to at least 20, as well as using counting processes to quantify and compare collections to at least 20.
Use physical and virtual materials and numerals, such as number cards, counting songs, storybooks and rhymes, to name, represent and order numbers. The forwards and backwards counting sequence of numbers and an understanding of how a number is ‘one less’ than a given number or ‘one more’ should also be established and fostered. Support students to learn the language of numbers to 10 and then 20, including the challenging teen numbers. Helping students understand and use terms to indicate ordinal position in a sequence (e.g. first, second … fifth) is also important.
Students apply existing knowledge of number names, numerals and number sequences to the context of counting activities. Initially students can count and compare collections of up to 10 objects and demonstrate reasoning. For example, they can use counting to compare the size of two or more collections to justify which contains more or fewer items. Make explicit strategies that support onetoone correspondence. Later, apply these skills to larger collections of at least 20.
Include a focus on how different cultures represent the count through games, stories and systems such as bodytallying.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Explore number sequences and counting through playbased experiences, stories, counting routines and games.
 Count and compare collections and explain or demonstrate reasoning.
 Apply counting and ordinal numbers to everyday situations.
Students:
 recognise, read, write and order numbers from 0 to at least 20
 use onetoone correspondence when counting, understanding that each object must be counted only once
 know that the last number counted answers the question of ‘how many?’
 conserve number – understand that a quantity doesn’t change if it is rearranged
 identify the number that is ‘one less’ than a given number and the number that is ‘one more’.
Some students may:
 be able to recite the number sequence accurately (e.g. say 1, 2, 3, 4) but have difficulty maintaining onetoone correspondence when counting a set of objects: for example, they do not coordinate saying the number names with pointing to or moving counters one by one. To address this, provide repeated occasions to count sets of objects, as well as sounds such as claps and drum beats.
 be unable to conserve numbers – for example, they are unable to see how two sets of the same number of counters (e.g. 6) are the same if arranged differently (e.g. one group of 6 and one row of 6 – the row is longer, so they see it as having more). To help address this, provide repeated opportunities to count and rearrange small collections.
 produce the number word just after/before a given number word in the range 1–10 but drop back to 1 when doing so. To address this, use counting songs, storybooks and a regular counting routine, such as ‘100 days of school’, to bring in repeated counting practice from different starting numbers.
 have difficulties with the number naming sequence from 12, particularly with the start of the teen sequence. They may say, ‘twelve, thirty, forty, fifty, sixty, seventy, eighty, ninety’ when counting aloud by ones from 12. To help address this, provide repeated opportunities to practise reading and naming numbers, emphasising teen numbers.
 frequently write teen numbers backward to match how they are said (for example, writing the 4 first in fourteen but producing 41). To address this, involve students in a discussion about the difficulty of teen number names: for example, provide tens frames and counters and say, ‘Make 1 ten and 4 ones (it should be called ‘onetyfour’). Now write that number, “onetyfour”. What’s the real name? Yes, “fourteen!”.’
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning to count forwards to and backwards from 10, then 20.
Why are we learning about this?
 We use numbers and counting in everyday contexts.
What to do
1. Listen to songs and rhymes. For example:
 Five little ducks
 Ten in the bed
 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, once I caught a fish alive
 Ten green bottles
 Five little monkeys
 1, 2, buckle my shoe.
2. Count every day. For example:
 When fruit is cut into pieces, count the number of pieces.
 Count the number of people at the bus stop.
 Count the number of houses as you walk along the street.
 Count how many steps it takes to walk from one part of the house to another.
 Count when grocery shopping together, for example, count the number of apples you put into the bag.
 Talk about the number of things in pictures.
3. Move with maths. For example:
 Count each toss of the ball as you play a game.
 Estimate how many jumps it will take to get to … Then count how many jumps it takes to get to ...
 Count the number of stairs. Coordinate each number name with each stair.
 Count while skipping.
4. Play games. For example:
 Go on a number hunt. Look for and recognise the numbers around you, for example, look at and say numbers on signs, calendars, speed signs and houses.
 Board games are a fun way to involve the whole family with maths. When rolling the dice, count, move and stop after moving the number shown on the dice.
Success criteria
I can:
 count forwards to 10 starting at any number, then 20
 count backwards from 10 starting at any number, then 20
 say which number comes before and after each number to 20
 match number names to each object when counting.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Collaborative learning
For group work to be effective students need to be taught explicitly how to work together in different settings, such as pairs or larger groups, and they need to practise these skills.
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Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA model)
The CRA model is a threephased approach where students move from concrete or virtual manipulatives, to making visual representations and on to using symbolic notation.
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Culturally responsive pedagogy
Mathematics is not an exclusive western construct. Therefore, it is important to acknowledge and demonstrate the mathematics to be found in all cultures.
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Multiple exposures
Providing students with multiple opportunities within different contexts to practise skills and apply concepts allows them to consolidate and deepen their understanding.
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Questioning
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.
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Classroom talks
Classroom talks enable students to develop language, build mathematical thinking skills and create mathematical meaning through collaborative conversations.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

100 days of school (daily routine)
Use this daily counting routine to practise counting to 100 in different ways using a visual model.
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Explore countable objects through play
Observe students’ existing number knowledge as they explore materials with countable aspects.
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reSolve: Authentic problems: Tea party
Use this unit to connect counting to a familiar context and develop counting skills.
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Counting activities and ordering numbers
Use these activities to connect number names with onetoone correspondence, and connect number names with numerals to 12, then to 20.
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Numbers and counting – Foundation
Use the lesson ‘I’m here!’ to use ordinal numbers regularly and in a meaningful way. Use the other lessons to learn about counting and number names from different cultures.
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reSolve: Number  Taking handfuls
Students quantify and compare collections up to 20.
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Yulunga games
Use the games Kai wed (pages 42–43) and Segur etug (pages 100–101) as authentic contexts for counting aloud.
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Counting with understanding (up to 20)
Use this video to practise counting forwards and backwards with dried pasta shells.
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Picture storybooks
Use a range of picture storybooks to connect number names to quantities and establish counting sequences.
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The counting game 1
Use this strategy game as a novel context to connect concrete materials with counting forwards and backward by ones.
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Some steps forward, some steps back
Challenge students to solve this problem using the number naming sequence to 12.
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Assessment
By the end of Foundation, students are connecting number names, numerals and position in the number sequence from zero to at least 20. They use counting strategies to quantify collections of up to 20 and can compare the size of different collections.

Counting principles
Use this task to assess whether a student is using key counting principles taught at this level.
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Get me task
Use this task to assess whether a student is using key counting principles taught at this level.
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Mathematics Foundation: ACARA
Refer to Foundation work sample 1, Number: knowing numbers, and work sample 6, Number: count up, to assess key understandings in this topic.
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