Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M5M03
Numeracy Progression: Measuring time: P4
At this level, students focus on reading time in 12hour and
24hour time and converting between them. They build on their knowledge of am and pm notation and solve timerelated problems.
When working with 12hour time, students will come to recognise that the hour hand on an analogue clock goes around twice because there are 24 hours in a day. Support students to link 24hour time (midnight to midnight) and the Latin terms ante meridiem am (before midday) and post meridiem pm (after midday).
Use timetables and pose relevant questions. Students retrieve information from a timetable and convert between different units of time in order to solve problems.
Make explicit how to calculate elapsed time using digital times. Show how adding on can be less confusing that subtracting. For example: ‘How long do we do maths for on a Monday?’ The session starts at 10:45 am and finishes at 11:30 am. Model how to solve by adding 15 minutes to 11:00, next add a further 30 minutes to 11:30, to show that 15 minutes + 30 minutes = 45 minutes. Compare that to subtracting using the decomposition method, which can be potentially confusing.
Teaching and learning summary
 Convert between 12hour and 24hour time.
 Use timetables to present start and end times of events for investigation.
 Make explicit how to calculate the duration of events.
Students:
 compare and use both 12hour and 24hour time systems
 match the different representations for the same time in 12hour and 24hour time
 calculate elapsed time using the units of hours, minutes and seconds.
Some students may:
 get confused between digital time and decimal notation when subtracting using the decomposition method to work out difference between two digital times. To address this, provide students with opportunities to convert different units of time. Ask, for example, ‘How many minutes are in 1 hour?’ Also compare to using the method of addition, which the student will most likely find easier.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning how to convert between 12hour and 24hour time.
 We are using timetables to present start and end times of events.
Why are we learning about this?
 We convert units of time in our daily lives to help with activities such as commuting.
What to do
 View this airport information about flight departure times.
Scheduled departure
Destination
Flight number
Status
Expected departure
14:25
Los Angeles
BA 268
Delayed
15:35
14:30
London
BA 269
Delayed
14:39
14:50
Rome
BA 289
On time
14:50
15:05
Tokyo
BA 333
Delayed
15:35
15:20
Paris
BA 930
On time
15:20
15:45
Frankfurt
BA 835
On time
15:45
16:10
New York
BA 383
Delayed
17:20
16:50
Amsterdam
BA 723
On time
16:50
17:30
Singapore
BA 433
Delayed
17:35
 Look at all the flight times
 Convert each scheduled departure time from digital to analogue time. Explain why 24hour time is used instead of 12hour time.
 Calculate the extra time waiting for each delayed flight.
 Order the flights in time from the least to the most delayed.
Success criteria
I can:
 use 12hour and 24hour time systems
 calculate elapsed time.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
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Questioning
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.
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Classroom talks
Classroom talks enable students to develop language, build mathematical thinking skills and create mathematical meaning through collaborative conversations.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Time tools: 24hour to the minute – time challenge
An interactive tool where students can adjust the time on an analogue and digital clock to match the time on the master clock.
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Time: Years F–8
This document contains information and classroom activities related to time.
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Measurement: Foundation to Year 9
This comprehensive book contains an overview of time attributes, as well as lesson ideas and a teaching sequence for time. Section 5 (pp 86–93) is most relevant.
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Time to the Nearest Minute
Time to the Nearest Minute Use these series of lessons to read time to the nearest minute.
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Queenstown extravaganza
In this activity students focus on using information to design a timetable.
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