Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M4M03
Numeracy Progression: Measuring time: P4
At this level, students convert between units of time and apply their knowledge, skills and processes to solving simple time-related problems. They develop fluency in telling time to the nearest minute.
Students may refer to a class-developed conversion chart that displays that there are 60 minutes in 1 hour and 60 seconds in 1 minute. The chart may also include months and years.
Convert between analogue and digital times using a format up to 12 hours. At this level students are not expected to know 24-hour time. They use ‘am’ and ‘pm’ to distinguish between times in the morning and afternoon/evening. Record digital time in 4-digit format 09:45 am.
Provide opportunities to use am and pm notation when creating daily timetables.
Present simple time-related problems that require students to:
- convert between analogue and digital times
- calculate the duration of an event (the difference between the start and end times)
- calculate the end time of an event (given the start time and duration)
- calculate total duration of a task (given how long part of the task takes – students may need to perform repeated addition or multiplication to solve the problem).
Ask students to justify their reasoning and explain how they solved the problem. Look for opportunities to explicitly teach how to carry out conversions or calculate durations.
Teaching and learning summary:
- Convert between units of time.
- Introduce am and pm notation.
- Present simple time-related problems.
- estimate a time on a one-handed clock and accurately draw the position of the minute hand
- describe the relationship between minutes and hours
- convert between minutes and hours
- convert between analogue and digital times
- solve simple time problems involving am and pm notation.
Some students may:
- have difficulty moving from the metric system that uses multiples of 10, for example, when measuring and converting length, to measuring and converting time that is not based on 10. Time involves multiples of 60 in some elements, but there are 24 hours in a day, 7 days in a week, and 365 days in a year (unless it’s a leap year, which has 366). The number of days in each month is also irregular. Support students to explore the inconsistencies of the measuring system for time and the simplicity of the metric system.
- not have a well-developed knowledge of fractions. These students may find it a challenge to read clock times, as it assumes a basic knowledge of fractions. Make explicit connections between fractions and reading clocks.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
- We are learning how to read the time on a digital and an analogue clock.
Why are we learning about this?
- We are learning the importance of time in our daily lives.
- Reading time is an important life skill.
What to do
- Find a digital and an analogue clock. You could use a mobile phone, computer, microwave clock, alarm clock, watch or wall clock.
- What are the similarities and differences in the saying and display of digital and analogue time.
- What is the difference between the two types of clocks when talking about ‘am’ and ‘pm’?
- What is the same and what is different about the 12-hour and the 24-hour clock times?
- Look at these times digital clock:
- 9:15; 3:45; 14:00
- Show the same times on the analogue clock.
- Change the following times into a digital format using the 24-hour system:
- 1 o’clock
- half past 6 in the evening
- quarter to nine in the morning
- midday, 12 noon
- tell the time
- use ‘am’ and ‘pm’ notation
- compare 12-hour and 24-hour time
- convert between analogue and digital times.
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A collection of evidence-based teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.Go to resource
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.Go to resource
Classroom talks enable students to develop language, build mathematical thinking skills and create mathematical meaning through collaborative conversations.Go to resource
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.
How long does it take?
This unit involves students in looking at the length of time various activities take, and calculating how long is spent on these activities in a week.Resource details
Construct several simple clocks including water clocks and pendulums. Use these clocks to measure time and compare to standard units of time.Resource details
A student task that requires students to read and interpret a timetable, calculating elapsed time.Resource details
Time: tell time to the minute using am and pm
This guide contains relevant teaching ideas (except 24-hour clock) related to time and clocks.Resource details
Time: measurement and geometry
This guide contains background information and classroom activities related to time.Resource details
By the end of Year 4, students are converting between units of time when solving problems involving duration.