Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M2M04
Numeracy Progression: Measuring time: P2, Interpreting fractions: P3
Students develop their ability to read the time to the hour, half hour and quarter hour using analogue clocks.
An important understanding for students is the awareness of hours as the key feature of a clock when telling time. This idea is demonstrated when telling analogue clock times to the quarterhour with only the hour hand present.
Use a variety of teaching strategies to facilitate student learning.
 Provide visual and tactile experiences (making their own clock) to develop students’ thought processes and conceptual understanding.
 Use collaborative tasks that involve mathematical discussion and reasoning. Probe student thinking to draw out mathematical reasoning when reading the time and solving timerelated problems.
 Divide the clock face into quarters to help students read the time to the quarter hour and revise fractions halves and quarters.
 Make explicit the way the hour hand moves along with the minute hand and how this relates to telling time.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Explore ‘quarterpast’, 'halfpast' and ‘quarterto’ time on analogue clocks.
 Read analogue clock times to the quarterhour.
 Sequence times and events to the quarter hour, using familiar contexts.
Students:
 read and show times to the quarterhour on analogue clocks accurately, including using the language of ‘past’ and ‘to’
 explain what makes a ‘quarterpast’ and ‘quarterto’ analogue clock time (e.g. for ‘a quarterpast 8’ explain that the hour hand has travelled a quarter of the distance between the 8 and the 9, and the minute hand has travelled a quarter of the way around the clock to point to the 3)
 understand that 15 minutes is a quarter of 60 minutes (one hour) and that ‘a quarterpast ten’ is 15 minutes after ten; a time that is quarter past the hour
 understand that 45 minutes is threequarters of 60 minutes (one hour) and that ‘a quarterto eleven’ is 45 minutes after ten; a time that is a quarter to the next hour.
Some students may:
 think that the minute hand is more important because it is bigger than the hour hand. Be explicit about the position of the hour hand and minute hand when telling the time using an analogue clock
 not realise the importance of each number being evenly spaced on an analogue clock (to ensure that every hour has equal duration). To address this, observe clock faces and be explicit about the spacing.
 confuse the minute and hour hands on an analogue clock (e.g. thinking that a quarterpast 2 is shown when the minute hand is just past the 2 and the hour hand points to 3). Address this by showing a time read that is a mistake. Ask them to reason why it is a mistake and what the correct time should be.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning how to tell time using a clock face.
 We want to write a list of what we plan to do during the day and when.
Why are we learning about this?
 Clocks are a tool we use to measure time.
What to do
 Think about the things you want to do today.
 What time did you wake up?
 How did your day start?
 Think about the day in parts: morning, middle of the day, afternoon and evening.
 What do you plan to do in each part of the day? What time would you do this?
 How long will each activity take?
 Draw a plan of your day.
 Write the times in order from start of day to the end of the day.
 Next to the time, write or draw the activity.
 What is the activity that takes the most time?
Success criteria
I can:
 tell the time to the quarter hour using a clock face
 write the time and put events in order
 work out how long activities such as eating lunch take to finish.
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Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Collaborative Learning
For group work to be effective students need to be taught explicitly how to work together in different settings, such as pairs or larger groups, and they need to practise these skills.
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Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA)
The CRA model is a threephased approach where students move from concrete or virtual manipulatives, to making visual representations and on to using symbolic notation.
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Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
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Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Stop the clock
This game for two players creates a meaningful context in which to apply understanding and develop fluency of clock times to the hour and halfhour.
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How long now?
Use sessions 3 to 5 of this fivesession unit that focuses on making clocks and using them to represent times when certain activities occur during the day.
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Clock wise
Students explore analogue and digital clock times to the hour and halfhour then solve timerelated problems.
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Just a minute
In this unit students develop an understanding of the duration of minutes and seconds. They also practise reading time by counting the minutes after an hour.
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