Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9MFST01
Numeracy Progression: Interpreting and representing data: P1
At this level, students explore foundational ideas for understanding and using data. They learn to collect, sort and compare data while investigating questions related to familiar situations.
Start by using ‘yes/no’ questions to collect simple information about the class. For example, explore whether there are more or fewer people with shoelaces than without by inviting ‘yes/no’ responses to the question: ‘Do your shoes have shoelaces today?’ Clearly model the use of a simple table and marks to present data and invite student commentary. Connect and apply counting and one-to-one correspondence to these conversations.
Gradually develop a capacity to identify and use data that occurs naturally through observation. Provide playful opportunities to explore simple questions that involve sorting objects into categories. For instance, find out whether there are more red tiles or more yellow tiles in a collection. Also include a focus on opportunities to explore attributes that are about function, such as ‘toys that move’ or ‘toys that don’t move’, in the classroom.
At this level, use data that is visible in everyday life such as weather, colour, types of pet, favourite activities, favourite food, or transport method for getting to school (for example, car, bus, walk, bike or scooter).
Use picture storybooks to spark statistical discussions. Also include a focus on what and how data from the environment is collected and used by First Nations Australians.
Ensure that opportunities for data collection and displays are meaningful to students by allowing them to take ownership. Do this by involving them in the process of collecting, exploring and commenting on data that they have helped to create.
Teaching and learning summary:
- Explore data in simple everyday surveys, hands-on sorting activities, and storybooks.
- Provide opportunities to create, interpret and discuss simple data displays, such as pictographs, using categorical data.
- pose and ask simple questions and collect responses (such as, do you like running games? Yes or No)
- sort and classify objects into categories and describe how they have been organised (for example, by colour, shape or function)
- display data using real objects or drawings (for example, sort square tiles according to colour and create a simple representation).
Some students may:
- not have established one-to-one correspondence, therefore are not able to use counting accurately in data contexts. Use data activities as playful contexts to re-emphasise strategies such as ‘point and count’ to support the development of counting
- focus on the overall size of objects in a group when asked ‘how many’ in each category, for example, they count 3 horses and 6 cats, and say there are more horses. To address this, regularly present two groups of vastly different-sized objects (for example, 3 trucks and 5 cars) and be explicit about the focus on number rather than size
- say that one group has more than another, but is unable to say how many more. To address this, provide repeated opportunities for students to compare small quantities using physical objects.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
- We are learning to collect data and make simple conclusions about the information (data) collected.
Why are we learning about this?
- Data is all around us! We use data every day to make decisions.
What to do
Have fun with surveys. For instance:
1. Pose a ‘yes/no’ question you’d like to ask family and/or friends. Examples might include:
- Do you like reading funny books?
- Do you like broccoli?
- Have you ever tried doing a handstand?
2. Collect responses by getting respondents to form a line depending upon their answer.
3. Use the survey data to make observations, for example, 3 people in our family like broccoli and 1 person does not.
4. Pose questions that spark casual data investigations in everyday contexts. For instance:
- Animals in the park, for example, 3 ducks and 2 dogs. Are there more dogs than ducks? How do you know?
- Animals in a storybook, for example, when reading The Waterhole by Graeme Base, explore questions such as, ‘What different animals did you see?’ and ‘Were there more tigers or kangaroos?’
- Investigate the fruit bowl: I wonder if there are more apples or more bananas? How could we find out?
- Family members. What are the different categories that make up our family? How many in each category? Category examples might include adults, children, pets. How else could we sort ourselves? Hair colour: brown hair, Black hair. What we do every day: people who go to work, people who work at home, people who go to school.
5. Explore collections of objects. For instance:
- Collect items that can be sorted into categories (for example, bottle caps of different colours, items from nature such as gumnuts and leaves).
- Sort items into categories and name each category (for example, 'These are gumnuts, these are pebbles.').
- Think about possible questions to explore about collections (asking questions such as, ‘Are there more green bottle caps or blue bottle caps?’).
- Organise the objects in ways that will help you answer the questions you’ve posed (for example, you might lay or stack categories alongside each other).
- sort items into categories according to how they are different (for example, sort blocks by colour: red blocks together and blue blocks together; types of pets: cats together and dogs together; types of fruit: apples together and bananas together)
- identify which group has more, for example, there are more cats than dogs
- pose and ask survey questions with ‘yes/no’ answers to explore a topic (for example, dietary questions such as, ‘Do you eat bread? Yes or No’).
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A collection of evidence-based teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.Go to resource
A culture of questioning should be encouraged and students should be comfortable to ask for clarification when they do not understand.Go to resource
Classroom talks enable students to develop language, build mathematical thinking skills and create mathematical meaning through collaborative conversations.Go to resource
Providing students with multiple opportunities within different contexts to practise skills and apply concepts allows them to consolidate and deepen their understanding.Go to resource
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.
Data is all around us
Use this unit to introduce and explore everyday data through familiar contexts.Resource details
Use the tasks on pages 9 to 11 to explore and practise sorting objects according to their attributes as a lead into sorting data.Resource details
Use the context of shoes worn to school to sort, classify, represent and interpret data. Applies one-to-one correspondence to at least 20.Resource details
The Voting Station
Use voting on a storybook as an authentic context to collect, visualise and interpret data.Resource details
Explore data by sorting LEGO pieces and organising them to make graphs.Resource details
Use a scenario of insect sightings to sort, count and compare categorical data.Resource details
By the end of Foundation year, students collect, sort and compare data in response to questions in familiar contexts.