Planning tool
Year levels
Strands
Expected level of development
Australian Curriculum Mathematics V9: AC9M8M04
Numeracy Progression: Measuring time: P5
At this level, students should be familiar with the concept of time as a measurement that determines how long it takes to get somewhere or how long it takes to complete something. They should also be familiar with the terms 'seconds', 'minutes', 'hours', 'days', 'weeks', 'months' and 'years'.
The concept of the 12hour and 24hour clock systems was introduced in Year 5 and should be revised and extended, so that students can convert confidently between am/pm and 24hour representations.
Students are introduced to calculating the duration between two times. They can use their knowledge of fractional parts such as quarters and can track their thinking by recording each step taken to get to the desired time. Use a flowchart or a sketch of a clock face to help students with calculations involving subtraction and addition.
Reading timetables is an essential skill that students will use throughout their life. Expose students to different types of timetables and show them how to interpret the information provided.
Students are taught that the world is divided into different time zones. Have them use digital tools to investigate and compare time in different countries. They should be able to locate cities within the same time zone and calculate the time difference between two cities in different time zones.
Provide experiences for students to apply the skills taught and the concept of time to create and use tables and to plan an international travel itinerary that covers destinations in different time zones across the world. Pose questions that allow them to investigate and solve real problems.
Teaching and learning summary:
 Revise telling the time on analogue and digital clocks.
 Revise the 12 and 24hour clock systems.
 Discuss the idea and rationale behind time zones and summer/winter in the context of Australia and its neighbours. Use a world map to demonstrate the need for time zones and how the world is divided vertically into zones.
 Explore how to calculate elapsed time.
 Relate clock hands to angles.
 A calculator can be used for time calculations by using the degree, minute and second function. This needs to be explicitly taught.
Students:
 tell the time accurately on an analogue or digital clock or watch
 convert between 12 and 24hour representations
 identify which states, territories and neighbouring countries are within the same time zone as theirs
 calculate the elapsed time between two events
 can read and interpret various timetables
 will use their knowledge of fractional parts to represent duration of time
 will use digital tools to investigate time zones.
Some students may:
 confuse the hands of an analogue clock or lack familiarity with analogue clocks.
 believe that they subtract the times as normal numbers and do not understand that minutes and hours are different units when working with the clocktime system (i.e. use base 10 not base 60).
 misunderstand the vocabulary of ‘o’clock’, ‘to’ and ‘past’ as there can be cultural differences in how the time is expressed.
 do incorrect conversions from 12 to 24hour time, and vice versa, with the error being that they are not taking am and pm into consideration.
 not realise that when using the 24hour clock, midnight can be shown as 0000 hours or 2400 hours depending on the context.
 have difficulty determining how long it takes to get from one place to another.
 have difficulty reading a timetable and understanding what the times represent.
The Learning from home activities are designed to be used flexibly by teachers, parents and carers, as well as the students themselves. They can be used in a number of ways including to consolidate and extend learning done at school or for home schooling.
Learning intention
 We are learning to interpret the time in analogue and digital form.
 We are learning to understand time zones in the context of Australia and its neighbours.
 We are learning to calculate the duration between two times.
 We are learning to explore how to calculate elapsed time.
 We are learning to use a calculator for time calculations.
Why are we learning about this?
If we understand different time zones around the world and how to effectively read and calculate time intervals we can work efficiently and use the right data in our globalised world!
What to do
Task 1: Timeline
A timeline is a visual way to describe events in chronological order.
 Develop a timeline to describe events that have taken place over 24 hours.
Task 2: Year 8 timetable
 Refer to your Year 8 timetable to answer the following questions in your book.
 Attach a copy of your timetable in your book.
 Calculate how much time you spend in class each day.
 How much time is spent doing English each week?
 How much time is spent doing Maths each week?
 How much time is spent doing Science each week?
Task 3: Time zones within Australia
 You have family in Perth (WA), Adelaide (SA) and Sydney (NSW).
 Your family lives in a different state or territory and wants to arrange a video call to connect with the other three families. Choose a time and work out the local time for each location so that the families can connect.
 Record the information in a table:
State/territory  Time zone  Time difference  Local time of call 
My state  0.0  
Perth, WA  
Adelaide, SA  
Sydney, NSW 
2. What effect does daylight saving have on the times of each state and territory?
Success criteria
 I can accurately tell the time on an analogue and digital clock.
 I can convert between 12 and 24hour time.
 I can calculate the elapsed time between two events.
 I can identify different time zones for the states, territories and countries neighbouring Australia.
Please note: This site contains links to websites not controlled by the Australian Government or ESA. More information here.
Teaching strategies
A collection of evidencebased teaching strategies applicable to this topic. Note we have not included an exhaustive list and acknowledge that some strategies such as differentiation apply to all topics. The selected teaching strategies are suggested as particularly relevant, however you may decide to include other strategies as well.

Explicit teaching
Explicit teaching is about making the learning intentions and success criteria clear, with the teacher using examples and working though problems, setting relevant learning tasks and checking student understanding and providing feedback.
Go to resource 
Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA)
The CRA model is a threephased approach where students move from concrete or virtual manipulatives, to making visual representations and on to using symbolic notation.
Go to resource 
Culturally Responsive Pedagogies
Mathematics is not an exclusive western construct. Therefore, it is vital that teachers acknowledge and demonstrate the mathematics to be found in all cultures.
Go to resource
Teaching resources
A range of resources to support you to build your student's understanding of these concepts, their skills and procedures. The resources incorporate a variety of teaching strategies.

Time zones (Years 8 and 9)
This resource explains the content knowledge needed for time zones in the Australian Curriculum.
Go to resource 
Horology hiccup
This resource presents a series of activities involving time. These include creating a timeline of a historical event, time zones, facts about time and using time in calculations.
Go to resource 
Doing time
These resources offer a variety of activities for teaching time. There are activities on converting from 12 to 24hour time, reading an analogue clock and managing time zones.
Go to resource 
Time zones
This Wikipedia page displays a map of the world with the time zones. It also discusses the history of time zones, lists countries in different zones and has other interesting facts on this subject.
Go to resource
Assessment
By the end of Year 8, students solve problems of duration involving 12 and 24hour cycles across multiple time zones.

Time (Years 8 and 9)
This resource explains the content knowledge needed for the topic of Time in the Australian Curriculum.
Go to resource 
Horology hiccup
This resource presents a series of activities involving time. These include creating a timeline of a historical event, time zones, facts about time and using time in calculations.
Go to resource 
Doing time
These resources offer a variety of activities for teaching time. There are activities on converting from 12 to 24hour time, reading an analogue clock and managing time zones.
Go to resource