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Statistics and probability

On this page there are links to papers on three modules that explain the basic concepts of probability and statistics:

  • Statistical representations and measures
  • Statistical analysis
  • Probability

These provide details of the knowledge students should have and some of the misconceptions they may hold. Examples are given to illustrate what these misconceptions may look like, how to address them, and support teachers in developing pedagogical and content knowledge.

Additional details

Year level(s) Year 7, Year 8, Year 9, Year 10
Audience Teacher, School Leader
Purpose Content knowledge
Format Downloadable resources
Keywords mean, median, continuaous, categorical, data, statistics, graph, explicit teaching

Curriculum alignment

Strand and focus Statistics
Topics Data representation and interpretation, Chance and probability
AC: Mathematics (V9.0) content descriptions
Acquire data sets for discrete and continuous numerical variables and calculate the range, median, mean and mode; make and justify decisions about which measures of central tendency provide useful insights into the nature of the distribution of data

Compare variations in distributions and proportions obtained from random samples of the same size drawn from a population and recognise the effect of sample size on this variation

Represent the distribution of multiple data sets for numerical variables using comparative representations; compare data distributions with consideration of centre, spread and shape, and the effect of outliers on these measures

Construct scatterplots and comment on the association between the 2 numerical variables in terms of strength, direction and linearity


Plan and conduct statistical investigations involving the collection and analysis of different kinds of data; report findings and discuss the strength of evidence to support any conclusions?

Plan and conduct statistical investigations involving data for discrete and continuous numerical variables; analyse and interpret distributions of data and report findings in terms of shape and summary statistics

Plan and conduct statistical investigations involving samples of a population; use ethical and fair methods to make inferences about the population and report findings, acknowledging uncertainty

Numeracy progression Interpreting and representing data (P5, P6, P7, P8)

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